My goal in this exercise is to develop a private-policing system concept.
As I vaguely remember, Critical Issues In Policing (an early edition), places the genesis of policing at the development of the position of sheriff in England. The "shire reeve" was the chief law-enforcement official for the king in a county.
Whether that book presented that origin, or my selective memory did, there are many problems with that interpretation of the origin of policing. For one thing, it's impossible, because humans were policing themselves on the tribal level and as illustrated in religious texts - the evidence cannot be ignored. Defining policing as descending from a king denies the natural rights of man and replaces them with the "rights" of kings - something that the Magna Carta, Parliament, congresses, communities, and gobs of stand-up individuals have fought against.
I've heard that policing and courts in Ireland existing as a free market, before England put the kibosh on Irish culture and self governance.
NEXT: Defining Policing